Research for proving your point, supporting your metrics, and gaining intelligence about measurement.

Research That Helps You Put a Monetary Value on Your Programs


Using Public Relations Research to Drive Business Results by Paine (KDPaine & Partners), Draper (Millward Brown Precis), and Jeffrey (VMS)

Guidelines for Setting Measurable Public Relations Objectives: An Update by Anderson (consultant), Hadley (Porter Novelli), Rockland (Ketchum), and Weiner (PRIME Research)

Guidelines for Measuring the Effectiveness of PR Programs and Activities by the Institute of Public Relations

You Are Now Free To Link PR and Sales” : Southwest Airlines and SEO-PR by the Institute of Public Relations

Timing Retail Investor Communications with Wave Theory by Ernest Martin (Virginia Commonwealth University)

Guidelines for Measuring Trust in Organizations by the Institute of Public Relations

Guidelines for Measuring Relationships in Public Relations by Hon (University of Florida) and Grunig (University of Florida)

Principles for the Use of ROI, BCR & CEA Financial Metrics in a PR & Communication Department by Fraser Likely (Likely Communication Strategies)

Isolating the Effects of Media-based PR on Sales: Optimization Through Marketing Mix Modeling by Weiner (PRIME Research), Arnorsdottir (Ketchum), Lang (Ketchum Pleon), and Smith (University of Houston)]

Other Research 


How To Measure Your Results in a Crisis by Katie Delahaye Paine (KDPaine & Partners)

An Examination of the Validity, Reliability and Best Practices Related to the Proposed Standards for Traditional Media by Eisenmann (Chandler Chicco Companies), O’Neil (Texas Christian University), and Geddes (Geddes Analytics LLC)

The State of Social Media Research: Where Are We Now, Where We Were and What it Means for PR by McCorkindale (Appalachian State University) and DiStaso (Penn State University)

Measuring the Effectiveness of Speakers Programs by Eisenmann (Chandler Chicco Agency) and Paine (KDPaine & Partners)

Research To Help You Set Up Your Measurement Program


Prioritizing Stakeholders for Public Relations by Brad Rawlins (Brigham Young University)

Is that all there is? A literature review and potential approach to measuring influence in social media by Sean Williams (Kent State University)

Measuring the Transparency of Environmental Sustainability Reporting Through Websites of Fortune 50 Corporations by Rawlins (Brigham Young University), Paine (KDPaine & Partners), and Kowalski (KDPaine & Partners)

Designing and Implementing Your Communications Dashboard: Lessons Learned  by Katie Delahaye Paine (KDPaine & Partners)

More Research


Toward an Understanding of How News Coverage and Advertising Impact Consumer Perceptions, Attitudes and Behavior by Bruce Jeffries-Fox (InsightFarm)

Good Management, Sound Finances, and Social Responsibility: Corporate Insider Perspectives on Reputation and the Bottom Line by Sandra Duhe (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)

Does familiarity breed contempt or trust? A case study of a gas pipeline awareness campaign among school safety officers by Centurion, Strategies, and Rawlins (Brigham Young University)

The Relationship Between Social Capital, Transaction Costs, and Organizational Outcomes: A Case Study by Fussell, Harrison-Rexrode, Kennan, and Hazleton, Radford University

To Tube or not to Tube: An Analysis of Ethical Guidelines for the YouTube Engagement of Non-Profit Organizations by Marcus Messner (Virginia Commonwealth University)

Doing Measurement Right: One Organization’s Experience Creating a Best-In-Class Measurement Program from Scratch by Phillips (USO) and Paine (KDPaine & Partners)

Do You ‘Twust’ Me? Measuring the Impact of Social Media on Trust and Credibility by Paine (KDPaine & Partners)

More Research from IPRRC 2016


What’s Wrong with PR…And How It Might be Fixed by Dozier and Williams

The PR of Public Diplomacy and Nation Building/Branding by Hayes

The Impact of Perceived Authenticity and Employees’ Empowerment on Communicative Behavior by Mazzei, Lee, Togna, and Kim

Task Force Findings: Emerging Standards for Measuring Internal Communication by Ewing, Smith, and Williams

Information Subsidies & Organizational Affiliations by San Diego State University’s School of Journalism & Media Studies

Research from 2016’s International Public Relations Research Conference (IPRRC)


Social Media Theories for CSR Communications: A Tale of U.S. Companies by Gomez (Universidad del Este), Borges (Universidad del Este), and Covert (University at Buffalo)

Tracking Social and Digital Media Use in Public Relations Practice: An Annual Longitudinal Analysis Study by Wright (Boston University) and Hinson (University of Florida)

Dissecting the Root of Vaccine Misinformation on Pinterest: Examining Anti-Vaccine Organizations’ Conflict Strategies and Risk Communication by Guidry (VCU), Orr (VCU), Kim (UGA), Cacciatore (UGA), Jin (UGA), and Messner (VCU)

Transparency in Social Media Crises Responses: The Case for Translucency by Moore (LSU), Pritchard (University of Oklahoma), and Climek (LSU)

Impact of a Brand Crisis on Nation Branding: An Analysis of Tweets about VW’s Emissions Crisis by Whytas and Burns (University of South Florida)

Private Brands via Private Spheres: How a Generic Brand was Repositioned as the “It Item” in the Blogging Community by Choi and Oh (William Paterson University)

CSR as an Internal Relationship Management Strategy: Linking CSR, Organization-Employee Relationships, and Employee Behavioral Outcomes by Chen, Hong, and Occa (University of Miami)

A Tale of Two Sources in Native Advertising: Examining the Effects of Source Credibility and Priming on Content, Organizations, and Media Evaluations by Wu, Huang, Li, Bortree, Yang, Xiao, and Wang (Penn State University)

Placing Native Ads on Social Media: Examining the Relationship between Social Media Characteristics and Effectiveness of Native Advertising by Wang and Huang (Penn State University)

A Systematic Review of 40 Years of Public Relations Evaluation and Measurement Research: Looking into the Past, the Present, and the Future by Sophia Volk (University of Leipzig)

Communication Evaluation and Measurement: Skills, Practices and Utilization in European Organizations by Zerfass (University of Leipzig), Vercic (University of Ljubljana), and Volk (University of Leipzig)

Crisis History Tellers Matter by Eaddy and Jin

Reputational Interdependence and PR Strategies in a Spillover Crisis by Veil, Dillingham, and Sloan

Who Shall Speak in a Crisis? The Role of Spokesperson Nationality by  Ruppell, Einwiller, Laufer, and Garrett

Exploring the Moderating Role of Crisis News Framing in Government-Public Relationships by Kim and Lim

From Power to Punishment: A Moderation Analysis of Online Complaining Behaviors by Zongchao Cathy Li

The Impacts of Two-way Communication in Crisis Response [Study in Progress] by Oshita and Yuan

The Post-Blackfish World: An Analysis of SeaWorld’s Strategic Communications Efforts by Rasmussen and Fisher

Consumer Reactions to Association-Based Crisis Response Strategies by Tao

Job Rotation and Career Path of PR Managers: HRM and PR in Japanese Companies by Miyabe

PR in Venezuela by Gutierrez

Developing a Scale to Measure Country Image

Does the Social Media Engagement Era Render the 2-Way Symmetrical Communication Model as More Relevant Than Ever? by Wakefield and Wilson

Millennial Engagement in Online Activism: Theoretical and Practical Implications for PR by Dookhoo and Dodd

The Communication Value Circle: Introducing a Multi-Disciplinary Framework for Aligning Communication with Corporate Strategy by Zerfass and Viertmann

Measuring the Value of PR? An International Investigation at How Practitioners View the Challenge and Solutions by Cacciatore, Meng, and Berger

Twibel Litigation: How U.S. and U.K. Social Media Defamation Laws Affect PR Practice by Myers

How Changing Media Formats Impact Credibility and Drive Consumer Action by O’Neil and Eisenmann

Control Mutuality, Social Media, and Organization-Public Relationships: A Study of Local Animal Welfare Organizations’ Donors by Sisson